Friday, April 11, 2008

MEDIEVAL TOWN PLANNING

INTRODUCTION


The time span between fall of the Roman empire till the start of renaissance is termed as DARK AGES as no great construction or development was carried out during this period.
Economy was rooted in agriculture and the feudal system was the new order.
Merchants & craftsmen formed guilds to strengthen their social & economic position.
Wars among the rival feudal lords were frequent.

PLANNING

1.Early medieval town was dominated by church or monastry & castle of lords.
2.For protective measures, towns were sited in irregular terrain, occupying hill tops or islands. Towns assumed informal & irregular character.
3.Church plaza became a market place.
4.Roads generally radiated from church plaza& market plaza to gates with secondary lateral roadways connecting them.
5.Castle was surrounded by wall & moat as a protective elements.
Irregular pattern in planning was devised to confuse enemies; as enemies unfamiliar with town.
Open spaces, streets, plazas developed as an integral part of site.
Streets were used for pedestrian while wheels were restricted to main roads.

CITIES IN TWELTH & THERTINTH CENTURY
The city of middle ages grew within the confines of the
walls.
While the population was small, there was space in the
town, but when it increased the buildings were packed
more closely and the open spaces filled.

Result was intolerable congestion, lack of hygiene and
pestilence.

CITY OF NAARDEN

1.CARCASSONNE

It contains market square,
castle & church of St.Nazzair.
Irregular pattern for streets is seen.




2. NOERDLINGEN

A Cathedral
B Moat

It shows the radial & lateral pattern of irregular road ways with the church plaza as the principal focal point of the town.

3.CITY MOUNT ST. MICHEL

It was the picturesque town.
It was church larger than the palace that dominated the medieval town of
St. Michel .
The town was enclosed within a protective wall . The artisan were sensitive
to the form & material of the building erected. Under their guidance
and care was exercised in the placement of, and relation between , structure of
the town which gave the picturesque town.


4.MONTPAZIER


During the 13th & 14th centauries colonial cities were founded by young empires to protect their trade and provide military security.
They were platted for allocation of sites to shelters and the regular plan is a distinct contrast to the informal.

The Medieval dwelling –

The medieval dwelling was conceived as an individual
fortress.
The average dwelling was two stories in height. The work- room and storage
Were on the first or basement. Sometimes kitchen was also located here. Living , dining
& sleeping took place on the second floor.
Masonry was the usual construction , although wood frame filled with
Wattle & clay & roofed with thatch for comparison, a small manor house is shown.

It contains a ‘ hall’ & cooking were perforated on this floor. A dormitory or solar was located in the tower above the chapel.
A drain pipe was imbedded in the wall for disposal of waste. The window had no glass and were protected with shutters.
Manor houses were extended in size and formed the nucleus of villages in many cases.

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